Pneumonia – What is it and How to Handle It!

pneumonia and treatmentPneumonia is an acute or chronic inflammation of the lungs where the alveoli are affected and / or interstitial. Pneumonia are the most common cause of death among infectious diseases. They are fifth in the statistics on diseases, causing death.

Classification of pneumonia

According to the course

  1. Acute pneumonia
  • Acute lobular pneumonia – pneumonia
  • Acute lobar pneumonia
  • Primary atypical pneumonia – interstitial pneumonia
  1. Chronic pneumonia

Anatomic classification (By area):

  • Atsinarni
  • Lobular
  • Confluent lobular
  • Lobar
  • Totally

According to the agents:

    • Bacterial – staphylococcal, streptococcal, pneumococcal – among adolescents and adults, E. coli, Haemophilus Influezae – in infants
    • Fungal – candidiasis, aspergillosis
    • Mycoplasmas
    • Pnevmotsistova – pnevmotsistis karina (in infants and AIDS patients).

Interstitial pneumonia occurring in:

    • flu
    • paragrip
    • adenoviruses – cause conjunctivitis and even enteritis.
    • Respiratory syncytial virus – mostly in children under 2 years
    • Cytomegalovirus
    • in immunocompromised patients.

More about influenza pneumonia can learn from the article “ Influenza

Bronchopneumonia:

It is the most common form. Due to destsendirashta (descends) infection of the bronchi in the lung alveoli and interstitial. In the lung parenchyma to form different size inflammatory foci, which in bacterial pathogens contain purulent exudate. These sections are sealed, greyish in color, can be multiple or merge with each other is (konluirashta pneumonia).

Bronhopnevmoniite may also be secondary (complication of some other disease):

    • Viral infection (influenza, measles)
    • Aspiration of food or vomit
    • Blockage (obstruction) of the bumper of a foreign body, neoplasm, and others.
    • Inhalation (inhalation) of poisonous gases
    • Major surgery
    • Severe chronic diseases (tuberculosis), malnutrition
    • Hipostatichni – zalezhavane in stroke

According exudate bronhopnevmoniite are:

    • Serous
    • Purulent (abstsedirashti)
    • Fibrinous-purulent
    • Haemorrhagic
    • Granulomatous

Clinical picture of pneumonia:

Pneumonia, whose symptoms are different from the clinical picture of pneumonia krupoznata are called atypical. The most common causes of atypical pneumonia are parasites (helminths), mycoplasmas, viruses, Legionella.

“Warning,

The distinction between the cause of X-ray was impossible, because pneumococcal pneumonia can occur and atypical, and atypical pneumonia can cause disease with “typical” way

Features of atypical pneumonia:

  1. Slow start
  2. Headache
  3. Muscle pain (myalgia)
  4. Mild fever (without fever)
  5. Dry irritating cough without expectoration (spitting)
  6. Weak auscultatory findings (rales almost missing

Warning,

Percussion and auscultation of the lungs, penetrate to a depth of 5 cm Therefore, the negative finding in a review does not exclude SARS. In unclear cases should always be made x-ray of the lungs.

Complications

    • Septic distribution to the agents of pneumonia in blood with the development of otitis media, meningitis, brain abscess, endocarditis.
    • Effect of the pleura – pleurisy, pleural effusion, pleural empyema
    • Wandering, recurrent pneumonia with involvement of other sections of the lungs.
    • Chronic pneumonia
    • Cardiovascular failure
    • Respiratory failure
    • Thromboembolic complications due to bed rest
    • Acute renal failure in dehydration

X-ray

  • In bronchopneumonia opened segment shading of the lung parenchyma.
  • In intestitsialna (viral) pneumonia is patchy open-web-like (reticular) shading.
  • For krupoznata pneumonia is characterized by dense, fairly sharply delimited great shading (like pneumonia or tuberculosis bronchial carcinoma with atelectasis).

Pneumonia Treatment

General events

  • Natural rest at – bedridden and prevention of thrombo-embolism (compression stockings, heparin in low doses)
  • Sekretolitichni funds, breathing exercises, inhalation therapy (humidification)
  • Treatment of heart failure
  • When hypoxia is given oxygen through nasal tube. In the development of acute respiratory failure, mechanical ventilation starting
  • Sufficient imports of liquids (depending on the increased losses due to high temperature)

Antibiotics

    1. After making bronchial secretions (sputum) starting immediately unintentional treatment without awaiting the results of bacteriological examination.
    2. Targeted treatment is started after receiving the results of microbiology, according antibiograma. If necessary change in the antibiotic.
    3. In severe cases, treatment is undertaken blind with a combination of 2 antibiotics.

Comments and suggestions:

    • When someone is sick, he must lie in a warm home and relax and not to “make a man” by dragging the workplace and makes all that can “spend a cold” feet. This not only delays the healing process and the risk of a complication, but is dangerous contaminants and their colleagues, which should also feel responsible.

     

    • Because he knows that the state has provided for the benefit hospital in such cases and was forced to pay for them, however, and wants the money to stay in the budget.
    • Humidifying the air in the room where you lie. No need to cover heads with towels and they stick their faces to fit over boiling pots with added sodium bicarbonate or camomile.
    • Simply place the container on the heater to evaporate the water run continuously or from time to time the liquid to boil to simmer.
    • Without adequate hydration can not be done liquefaction and disposal of lung mucus secretions, as a result of the Bronchopneumonia. Therefore, increase fluid intake, but uniformly distributed throughout the day so as not to burden your cardiovascular system. Not necessarily tea necessarily be hot when you drink. It is important to drink more tea, and even a cold.
    • In the choice of antibiotic should be borne in mind the surroundings of the patient, previous diseases, radiological findings and prior treatment. Antibiotics for Pneumonia are appointed by the doctor rather than your colleague, where they drink each month to treat fever, headaches, pimples on your legs and what not

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Filed under: List of Diseases

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